The Public Nature of Private Violence: Women and the Discovery of Abuse

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Can I get a copy? Janay Rice, shortly after the release of the elevator video in September , lambasted the media for using what she understood to be a private matter between intimate partners in order to gain better their ratings. Ultimately, in May , because he completed his pretrial intervention program, the charges against Rice were dismissed. Domestic violence advocacy groups, like the National Coalition against Domestic Violence, have been concerned that the treatment of the incident and of Rice might send a message to the public that domestic violence should not be treated as a dangerous crime.

The message sent by these actions is that perpetrators of domestic violence will not be held accountable for their crimes.

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The case involving Ray and Janay Rice illustrates the difficulty in balancing the right to privacy in intimate relationships with the public interest in punishing perpetrators of domestic assaults. Domestic abuse has historically been a crime that has gone unpunished precisely because of the private nature of intimate relationships. And it is for this very reason that it is important to keep public discussion of the issue alive in a way that encourages victims to come forward. Daniels, Cynthia R.

The Public Nature of Private Violence

Lanham: University Press of America, Feder, Lynette. New York: Haworth Press, Fineman, Martha, and Roxanne Mykitiuk. New York: Routledge, Freedman, Estelle B. Bottom of Form. Gordon, Linda. New York, N. McMillen, Sally G. New York: Oxford University Press, Pleck, Elizabeth H. Rosen, Ruth. New York: Viking, Schneider, Elizabeth M. New Haven: Yale University Press, Suk, Jeannie. Origins: Current Events in Historical Perspective gratefully acknowledges the generous support of the Stanton Foundation.

Skip to main content. The Ohio State University. This can be compounded in cases when women do seek aid yet are then held responsible for the abuse and its continuation, as seen in the Smartsafe and Landscapes findings; see also Fanslow and Robinson Heather in Landscapes , for example, was physically assaulted after her partner discovered that someone had contacted her, unsolicited, on social media. She reported the incident to police and recalled that:.

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Women were typically reluctant to withdraw from their online communities as they were a source of support and connection. A worker explained:. Women have told me that even though they are being harassed and stalked they are not willing to stop using communication technologies because it is the only way they can access their support people without feeling like they are endangering them. Further highlighting the tendency to responsibilize women, Burke et al.

The Public Nature of Private Violence: Women and the Discovery of Abuse - CRC Press Book

In the Landscapes project, women were pressured into closing their online accounts, changing their phone numbers and withdrawing from online activities—that is, from sources of comfort and assistance. Yet digital communities can be vital for women who are geographically isolated and have limited opportunities for face-to-face contact. Interestingly, Hay and Pearce found that rural women in Queensland, Australia, made greater use of technology in both business and personal capacities than men.

A DV support practitioner wrote:.

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My ex used to track me with GPS, I felt afraid to tell him to stop doing this. This made it so hard to leave him and I had to get a new phone etc. He would send me up to 50 texts a day with horrible and graphic details of what he was going to do to me. He harassed my family to try to find me, but I have moved states losing contact with most of my supports , to be free of him. A worker wrote:. While it seems unfair that it has to come to this, often there is little option. Freedom work is the labour required to create the conditions that enable women and children to be free from male violence, encapsulating the broader feminist project of violence prevention Woodlock This freedom work typically went hand-in-hand with safety work in the refuge movement in the s but has increasingly been separated from DV practice, with funding cuts and service delivery agreements often deliberately designed to separate activism from frontline practice Theobald et al.

The Public Nature of Private Violence: Women and the Discovery of Abuse

Yet studies on intimate partner stalking that were conducted before the rapid uptake of mobile and online technologies identified that stalking, particularly unwanted phone calls and surveillance, is a risk factor for domestic homicide McFarlane et al. More recently, reviews of domestic homicides in Australia have found that in half of all cases in which the men were convicted of intimate partner homicide there was no report of physical or sexual violence leading up to the homicide Johnson et al.

We maintain that DCC is a form of harm that should be considered when seeking to locate the warning signs of fatal violence enacted against women and their children. Similarly, the Queensland Domestic and Family Violence Death Review and Advisory Board : 2 notes the use of digital media in patterns of abuse by DV perpetrators who committed homicide or suicide. The NSW Domestic Violence Death Review Team : ix also finds that technology-facilitated stalking is a pattern of behaviour linked to intimate partner homicide.

As Melander , Zweig et al.

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  7. Another practitioner remarked:. The checking of phones or constant messaging for some women may have become part of daily life. Second, it is vital to consider how the identity, cultural and community associations of a survivor can influence their reading of abusive behaviours and stalking, particularly in contexts where such behaviours have not been adequately redressed or regulated by states or societies.

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    In this vein, survivors with disabilities and Indigenous peoples groups with higher reported and recorded rates of victimization compared to the general population may normalize violence because of persistent exposure to systemic discrimination Cunneen ; Al-Yaman et al. There has, as yet, been little study of DCC in these settings. Third, context must be considered when examining normalization, in relation not only to survivor experiences of DV and discrimination, but also of the digital realm itself.

    A wealth of studies highlights how, as the use of digital media and devices mobile phones, tablets and computers has increased, so has their presence in intimate relationships Carpenter and Spottswood ; Trepte and Reinecke ; Fox et al. Reed et al. High rates of victimization have been noted in numerous inquiries pertaining to technology and violence Temple et al.

    While such spaceless acts should not be unquestioningly divorced from DV, it does give us pause to ask whether this is a new terrain in some respects or whether new norms are being forged, and what the consequences might be for those in intimate relationships. A DV practitioner in SmartSafe reflected:. I work with young people and it is not unusual for them to get 50 texts a day from all their friends and their boyfriend. It is hard for them to then know when it crosses the line into abusive behaviour as it seems this is average for them to get many text messages.

    Internationally though mainly in the Global North , studies have found alarming rates of controlling behaviour exercised through technology. Research has found that between 22 and 93 per cent of usually male and female participants across multiple studies have experienced some form of cyber aggression see Picard ; Melander ; Burke et al. These high rates of prevalence could indicate that such behaviour is somewhat tolerated or seen as standard. Overwhelmingly, the literature has focused on teenage and youth subjects, which has resulted in commentators assuming that the experience of such violence, and its normalization, is unique to or more common among youth.

    Yet this is a flawed assumption George and Harris Certainly, few studies have focused on older age groups, so we have less insight into these older cohorts, but Cavezza and McEwan , examining ex-partners engaging in cyberstalking, found that the average age of perpetrators was 37 years of age. Similarly, the average age of participants in the SmartSafe study was 35,.

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    Woodlock : Ultimately, despite commentators insisting that technology-facilitated violence is becoming normalized, there is no unequivocal link between prevalence and tolerance levels. We do wonder whether there are different parameters as to what acts are deemed acceptable in online and offline spaces, but this could be influenced by an array of individual and societal factors and should not be regarded as universal or unquestioned see Patton et al.

    Additionally, what we could be seeing is a shift in perceptions of violence in both online and offline boundaries, and so, lastly, we affirm that our understanding of normalization must include consideration of any such shifts. DCC is a new field of inquiry and we need to better understand this phenomenon. The hallmark of DCC its spacelessness is a point of difference, but we simply do not know to what degree technology and the architecture of various platforms and mediums enable actors and actions.

    We also need to gain further insight into how DCC is similar to and different from other forms of abuse and in-person stalking, and how these behaviours are intersecting with technology. There needs to be a greater focus on DCC as spaceless, yet we urge scholars to recognize that place and space are not irrelevant in this arena. Where the victim, offender and criminal justice institution are all geographically based will shape experiences and responses to DCC and, arguably, may even shape the forms of male peer support networks that emerge, and the extent and features of perpetration see also DeKeseredy et al.

    Changing environments are important, too: in various locations, significant government inquiries have potentially wrought change to the ways DCC is discussed, policed and prosecuted. Context might also explain why and how DCC can be normalized, romanticized and even performed. Technology can have negative impacts, but there are also positive impacts and uses of technology.